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Alphabetical Order and Guide to 
Pronunciation. Lushootseed is written here in the 
manner familiar from published work by Hess and 
Hilbert. Each symbol has a single sound value, as in a 
phonemic alphabet, but some prefixes, suffixes and 
roots are written consistently even when slight 
changes occur in their pronunciation; the system is 
thus a morphophonemic writing system. The sound 
values are described in order below; phonetic 
descriptions appear in [square brackets]. 

? This symbol is called the "glottal stop" and it 
represents the catch in the throat in the middle of the 
English word Uh-oh. 

a This symbol is usually pronounced like the a m father 
and occasionally like the a in or. When unstressed, a 
is pronounced a. [bw back unrounded vowel] 

b The symbol b is pronounced veiy much like English b 
in baby, [voiced bilabial stop] 

b' This rare sound does not begin words in 
Lushootseed; the symbol is called "glottahzed b" and it 
sounds like English b combined with a glottal stop, 
[voiced bilabial stop with glottal stricture] 

C This Lushootseed symbol has a very different value 
than it does in English; it sounds like the ts at the end 
o(cats. [voiceless alveolar affricate] 

c' This common sound is a Lushootseed c combined 
with a glottal stop; the symbol is called a "glottalized 
c". Air gets trapped between the throat and the tip of 
the tongue, and then released with a popping sound, 
[voiceless ejective alveolar affricate] 

i This symbol, called "c-wedge", represents a 
Lushootseed sound like the English sound usually 
spelled chf as in church, [voiceless palatal affricate] 

V This "glottalized c-wedge" is a combination of glottal 
stop and d, released with the same popping sound as 
c'. [voiceless ejective palatal affricate] 

d This symbol and the sound it represents correspond 
to English d quite closely, [voiced alveolar stop] 

d^ This symbol is called "d-raised-z" and sounds like the 
ds in kids, [voiced alveolar affricate] 

9 This symbol is called Vhwa". Many monolingual 
English dictionaries use it to represent the vowel 
sound in the words but and of^ and the first sound of 
around, [mid central vowel] 

g Lushootseed g is always pronounced like the English 
g in good and guess, never like the g in giant, [voiced 
velar stop] 

g* This symbol is called "g-raised-w" and represents ag 
pronounced with the lips pursed, like thegvv in Gwen. 
[voiced labialized velar stop] 

h This sound is like English h in happy, [voiceless 
glottal glide] 

i E>epending on the sounds surrounding it, this 
Lushootseed vowel can be pronounced like the vowels 
in beet or bait, [non-low front unrounded vowel] 

j This symbol is called "j-wedge" and sounds like those 
beginning the English words giant and jay, [voiced 
palatal affricate] 

k The English k which starts and ends kick is similar to 
Lushootseed k. [voiceless velar stop] 

k' Lushootseed k can combine with a glottal stop to 
make a popping sound called a ''glottalized k". 
[voiceless ejective velar stop] 

k^ Like English qit, the "k-raised-w" is a /: with the lips 
pursed, as in quick, [voiceless labialized velar stop] 

k'^ Combining k^ and k'y the "glottalized k-raised-w" is 
a popping noise made with pursed Ups. [voiceless 
labialized ejective velar stop] 

I Lushootseed / is like English / in Hve and unlike 
English / in feel, [lateral alveolar liquid] 

V This is the "strictured 1". Since it does not begin 
words in Lushootseed, there is no dictionary chapter 
for it. It sounds something like the / in the word feel; 
constriction in the throat results in a rumbling sound, 
[laryngealized lateral alveolar liquid] 

4- This sound is similar to a whispered / or a lisp; air 
flows down one or both sides of the tongue. The 
symbol is called a "barred-l". [voiceless lateral alveolar 

X' The "glottalized barred-lambda" sound is similar to a 
clicking sound some English speakers use to call 
horses, except that the English sound brings air into 
the mouth, while Lushootseed k* moves trapped air 
out of the mouth along the side of the tongue and is 
quieter, k' sounds like r/, not like kl, [voiceless 
ejective lateral alveolar affricate] 

m The symbol m sounds like English m in mother. In 
Lushootseed, m only appears as a replacement for b 
in certain special words and speech styles; see Thompson 
and Thompson (1973). [bilabial nasal] 

m' The "strictured m" is a variant of the rare m sound 
with throat tension like i\ [laryngeaUzed bilabial nasal] 

n The symbol n sounds like the n in night. This sound 
only appears as a replacement for d in certain special 
words and speech styles, [alveolar nasal] 

n' The "strictured n" is a variant of the rare n sound 
with throat tension like /*. [laryngealized alveolar 

p Lushootseed /7 is like English/? in pop. [voiceless 
bilabial stop] 

p' The "glottalized p" combines a glottal stop and ap to 
trap air in the mouth, which is then released with a 
popping noise, [voiceless ejective bilabial stop] 

q Sometimes called an "Indian k", this sound is made 
further back in the mouth than k. [voiceless uvular 

q' The "glottalized q" combines the glottal stop with q, 
releasing with a popping noise, [voiceless ejective 
uvular stop] 

q* The "q-raised-w" purses the lips during q. [voiceless 
labialized uvular stop] 

q'* The "gbttalized q-raised-w" combines q' and ^* for 
a popping "Indian k" with pursed hps. [voiceless 
ejective labialized uvular stop] 

S This symbol has approximately the same value in 
Enghsh and Lushootseed. [voiceless alveolar fricative] 

5 The "s-wedge" symbol represents a sound like the 
English sh in ship, [voiceless palatal fricative] 

t This symbol corresponds to English t in tote, [voiceless 
alveolar stop] 

t' The "glottalized t" traps air in the mouth with a glottal 
stop and releases it into a popping t. [voiceless ejective 
alveolar stop] 

U Depending on the sounds around it, this symbol can 
represent the vowels in the English words boot and 
boat, [rounded non-low back vowel] 

w This symbol represents a sound like English w in 
work, [high back rounded ghde] 

w* The "strictured w" is a variant of w with throat 
tension like /'. [laryngealized high back rounded glide] 

X^ This symbol, often called "x-w", sounds vaguely like 
someone blowing out a candle; a bit like wh in h^ic/i 
(when it is pronounced differently from wtVc/i), but 
more raspy. The lips are pursed, and the tongue is in 
approximately the same position as for making k. 
[voiceless labialized velar fricative] 

X This symbol, called an "x-wedge", is sometimes written 
with a lowered dot replacing the wedge: ^ The sound 
is like /i, but much more raspy. The tongue is in 
approximately the same position as for making q. 
[voiceless uvular fricative] 

X* The "rounded x-wedge" purses the lips during i. 
[voiceless labialized uvular fricative] 

y This sound is approximately the same as English y in 
yellow and yes. [high front unrounded glide] 

y' The "strictured y" is a variant ofy with throat tension 
like r. [laryngealized high front unrounded glide] 



Dawn Bates 

Thorn Hess 

Vi Hubert 

Dedicated to 
Laurence C. Thompson 

whose insights and support provided a firm foundation 
for the study of Lushootseed 

Edited by Dawn Bates 

University of Washington Press 

Seattle and London 

Lushootseed Dictionary is completely reformatted and greatly revised and expanded 
update of Dictionary of Paget Salish by Thom Hess (University of Washington Press, 
1976). Royalties from the sale of Lushootseed Dictionary will defray publication 
costs and fund further work of Lushootseed Research. 

Copyright © 1994 by Lushootseed Research 
Printed in the United States of America 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in 
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, 
or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the 

ISBN 0-295-97323-4 

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American 
National Standard for Information Sciences — Permanence of Paper for Printed 
Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. « 

Map by Laura Dassow